||[Feb. 15th, 2007|09:31 pm]
1. What is change blindness? Describe the stimulus and the procedure used to measure it. How is attention involved?|
Change blindness is when the viewer is blinded to a change in a picture or a photograph because of a blank screen inserted between them. It could be a major or a minor change but it is still difficult to catch on to either way because to the viewer, everything is changing because of the blank screen. Attention is involved because it takes a lot of attention, even though it is serial processing, to find the change in the two pictures.
2. Describe the dichotic listening task and the shadowing task.
A dichotic listening task is where a listener has someone speaking into both ears and he or she is told to listen to only one of the messages. The person is able to remember the message that they were told to attend to but not the message that they ignored. The shadowing task is very similar except for that in the shadowing task the listener is asked to recite the message that they had been listening to back to them. The listener usually has trouble with this but can still remember the message.
3. Discuss the evidence regarding detection of unattended information during selective auditory attention tasks. What DO we detect? What DON'T we detect?
Unattended information can usually not be remembered. During auditory tasks it does not matter if the message has a different meaning or is in a different language. The only thing we do seem to detect in unattended information is whether there is a strong physical difference. Like the tone of the voice, if it is high pitched or loud.
4. What things influence our ability to divide our attention? Describe what makes it easier and harder to divide attention.
It is difficult to divide our attention if the things we are doing share a stimulus or a response. It is difficult to do them simultaneously because the tasks are so similar. It is much easier to divide our attention if we have practice in the tasks that we are completing because when a task is practiced, it takes much less attention to perform it, allowing us to direct our attention towards other tasks and further divide our attention.
5. What is the Stroop Effect? What does it tell us about reading?
The Stroop Effect is where it is difficult to recite the color of the text of words that actually mean different colors. If the word red is written in green it is easier to say red than green when one sees it. This tells us that reading has become automatic. We do not look at words without our brains automatically reading them.
6. Understand the experiments, results, and implications regarding the use of cell phones during driving.
The first experiment was done by Strayer and Johnston in 2001 and involved the tracking of a moving target. Sometimes the participants were asked to track while using a cell phone or a hands free phone. The amount of errors were recorded. The same thing was done using a driving simulator in 2003. It was found that the using of either kind of phone distracts the driver the same and increases the chances of an accident.